Bio-Fortified crops are breeding intervention. Biofortified crops generated by different approaches: transgenic, agronomic, and breeding. Staple cereals, most common vegetables, beans, and fruits have been targeted by all three approaches. Some crops have been targeted by only one or two approaches depending on its significance and prevalence in the daily human diet. Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.
- Iron-bio fortification of rice, beans, sweet potato, cassava and legumes.
- Zinc-bio fortification of wheat, rice, beans, sweet potato and maize.
Bio fortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved through agronomic practices, conventional plant breeding, or modern biotechnology. Bio fortification differs from conventional fortification in that bio fortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. Bio fortification may therefore present a way to reach populations where supplementation and conventional fortification activities may be difficult to implement and/or limited.
- Pro-vitamin A carotenoid-bio fortification of sweet potato, maize and cassava, and
- Amino acid and protein-bio fortification of sorghum and cassava.